Glossary

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6th form - The 6th form is for key stage 5* students age 16 to 18 studying ‘A’ Levels* or vocational* qualifications, such as a BTEC* or NVQs, - National Vocational Qualifications.
Academic review - Academic review is a form of parental consultation,often in lieu of parents’ evening*. Parents come to an event where they meet their child’s tutor* and set targets to help their child to improve.
Academies - Academies are privately sponsored, but are still state schools. Previously failing schools which have closed have been re-launched as Academies. Some Academies are new build with extensive resources.
Academy - Academies are privately sponsored, but are still state schools. Previously failing schools which have closed have been re-launched as Academies. Some Academies are new build with extensive resources.
Admissions - Admissions is the department in the local education authority responsible for allocating children to schools.
Alumni - Alumni are the school’s ex students. An alumni organisation might stage events, for example, reunions, or publish a newsletter for ex-students.
Applied - Applied learning is learning that is applied to the world of work.
Apprenticeships - As employees, apprentices earn a wage and work alongside experienced staff to gain job-specific skills. Off the job, usually on a day-release basis, apprentices receive training to work towards nationally recognised qualifications. Anyone living in England, over 16 and not in full-time education can apply.
APS - You can have APS at key stage 2*, 3*, 4* and 5*. Each exam result a pupil gains is given a number of points depending on what grade they get. A calculation is made as to a pupil's APS, a subject's APS or a school's APS. Schools' achievement can therefore be compared.
Assistant Head teacher - An Assistant Head teacher is a senior manager.They are usually below Deputy Head teachers* in school hierarchies.
Attainment - Schools are measured nationally in terms of progress and attainment. Attainment is how well pupils do according to national averages, and in national examinations, regardless of how good they were when they started the school.
Average Point Score - You can have APS at Key stage 2*, 3*, 4* and 5*. Each exam result a pupilnbsp;gains is given a number of points depending on what grade they get. A calculation is made as to a pupil's APS, a subject's APS or a school's APS. Schools' achievement can therefore be compared.
Banding - Also known as ‘streaming’. Banding is a way of organising students into ability groups. Banding means that students are put into the same ability groups for most or all subjects. So if a student is in the top band for Maths, they will also be in the top band for other subjects, like English and Science. Banding is also a method some local authorities use to ensure that students from different ability groups are represented in all their comprehensive schools.
BSF - All secondary schools were involved in the government programme BSF. Its aim was to rebuild or renew every secondary school in England over the next 10-15 year period. However, since May 2011, many BSF projects have been cancelled.
BTEC - A BTEC is a vocational* qualification which is usually completed at Key Stage 4* or 5* and can be equivalent to GCSEs or 'A' levels.
Building Schools for the Future - All secondary schools were involved in the government programme BSF. Its aim was to rebuild or renew every secondary school in England over the next 10-15 year period. However, since May 2010 many projects have been cancelled.
Careers - The subject of Careers consists of information and guidance provided to students on employment options.
Catchment - A school’s catchment is the locality from where a school is most likely to take their students.
CATs - CATs (Cognitive Ability Tests) are given to students to help schools to predict their academic potential. For example, a CATs test could predict that a student is capable of attaining five or more A*–C grades at GCSE*. CATs tests are usually given to students in Years 7 and 9*. They are often used to work out whether schools have added value* or not.
CDT - Also known as 'DT'. CDT is the name given by some schools to the study of practical based technology skills. It is a National Curriculum* subject, and should contain Resistant Materials* Food Technology* and Textiles* although these areas will normally be taught separately.
Child protection - Child protection issues concern children at risk in their home environment, for example, from abuse or neglect.
Citizenship - The subject of citizenship equips young people with the knowledge, skills and understanding to play an effective role in public life. It is currently statutory at key stage 3 and 4* for schools which are required to teach the National Curriculum.*
Classroom Assistants - Also known as ‘Teaching Assistants (TAs)’, ‘Higher Level Teacher Assistants (HLTAs)’, ‘Special Needs Assistants (SNAs)’,‘Support staff’. Assistants support teachers in and out of the lesson working with particular students, for example, those with special educational needs*.
Cognitive Ability Tests - CATs are given to students to help schools to predict their academic potential. For example, a CATs test could predict that a student is capable of attaining five or more A*–C grades at GCSE*. CATs tests are usually given to students in Years 7 and 9*. They are often used to work out whether schools have added value* or not.
Community Schools - Community schools are the standard type of maintained, state school.
Comprehensive schools - Comprehensives are state schools which admit a cross section of students from the community with a range of academic abilities.
Core subjects - Core subjects at secondary school are those which must be studied by all students, for example, English, Maths and Science.
Cover Assistants - A cover assistant is employed by the school to cove lessons when the teacher is away. They are often not trained teachers.
Day book - Also known as 'journal'. Most schools give students a school journal or day book. It is used primarily for recording homework, and facilitating communication between home and school. The day book usually has a place where parents and tutors* can sign every week, to say they have read the homework set and acknowledged any communications with each other.
DCfS - The DCfS was the government department with responsibility for education. Post May 2010 it was replaced by the DfE*.
Deputy Head teacher - A Deputy Head teacher is a senior manager. They are usually above Assistant Head teachers* in school hierarchies and, as their title suggests, deputise for the Head teacher in their absence.
Design & Technology - Also known as 'CDT'. DT is the name given by some schools to the study of practical based technology skills. It is a National Curriculum* subject, and should contain Resistant Materials* Food Technology* and Textiles* although these areas will normally be taught separately.
DfE - The DfE is the government department with responsibility for education. Prior to May 2010 it was known as the DCfS*.
Diploma - The Diploma is a relatively new qualification which is supposed to be completed along side GCSEs. The Diploma is an applied* qualification, which means it applies learning to the world of work. Diplomas are completed in specialist areas such as Creative and Media, or Sports and Leisure.
Directed time - Teachers have a certain amount of hours per year which are mandatory. This means they can be directed to attend parents' evenings, awards' evenings etc.
DT - Also known as 'CDT'. DT is the name given by some schools to the study of practical based technology skills. It is a National Curriculum* subject, and should contain Resistant Materials* Food Technology* and Textiles* although these areas will normally be taught separately.
Dyslexia - Dyslexia is a learning disability affecting reading capacity.
Dyspraxia - Dyspraxia is a learning difficulty in performing tasks requiring fine motor skills such as drawing or writing.
EAL - English as an additional language students (EAL) are from ethnic minorities and receive additional support to assist them inaccessing the National Curriculum.
EBD - This classification (EBD - emotional and behavioural difficulties) includes a range of needs. For example, an EBD student might find it difficult to behave appropriately in a school environment.
Emotional and behavioural difficulties - This classification (EBD - emotional and behavioural difficulties) includes a range of needs. For example, an EBD student might find it difficult to behave appropriately in a school environment.
English as an additional language - English as an additional language students (EAL) are from ethnic minorities and receive additional support to assist them inaccessing the National Curriculum.
English Baccalaureate - At the time of writing, the English Baccalaureate is a new measure for schools in the School and College Performance Tables* of how many pupils achieved 5 A* - C GCSE grades in English, Maths, 2 Sciences, and History or Geography.
Equal Opportunities Policy - This is a policy which states how the school will try and treat all students fairly and give them equal access to the school curriculum and other activities.
Exclusions - The most serious sanctions a school can use are fixed term or permanent exclusions. ‘Fixed term’ exclusions are sometimes called suspensions. Usually, after a large number of fixed term exclusions, a student will be permanently excluded. Or a school may impose a permanent exclusion for one very serious misdemeanour.A school may use fixed term exclusions quite regularly, but permanent exclusions are usually only given in extreme circumstances.
Extended schools - Extended Schools provide a range of services in addition to traditional school provision. For example, child care or evening classes for adults. By 2010 all schools had to be extended schools.
Extra-curricular - Extra-curricular activities take place outside of lesson times, for example, at lunchtime or after school.
FE - FE, Further Education is education at 6th form level, Years 12 and 13*.
First schools - First schools are part of the middle school* system and they take students from Years 1 - 4.
Food Technology - FT, Food Technology is the study of cookery, food hygiene and menu planning. It is part of the Design Technology*subject group.
Foundation learning - Foundation learning is learning and qualifications for pupils who are not likely to achieve a GCSE* above a grade D.
Foundation Schools - Foundation schools are broadly the same as trust schools. The governing body is the employer and admissions authority, rather than the local authority, as is the case for maintained schools. Faith schools are often trust schools.
Foundation subjects - Foundation subjects are not tested through SATs*but schools are required to teach, assess and report upon them at the end of key stage 3*.They include History, Geography, Music and Design Technology.
Free school meals - Free School meals’ percentages are used to help gauge the number of students from deprived backgrounds who go to a school. Parents have to be in receipt of benefits for their children to qualify for free school meals.
Free schools - Free Schools are all-ability state-funded schools set up in response to parental demand. At the time of writing, they are a new government initiative. Charities, universities, businesses, educational groups, teachers and groups of parents can set up free schools.
FT - FT is the study of cookery, food hygiene and menu planning. It is part of the Design Technology*subject group.
Further Education - FE, Further Education is education at 6th form level, Years 12 and 13*.
GCSE - GCSEs, (General Certificate of Secondary Education) are the key qualification students take at key stage 4* when they are 16.They replaced ‘O’ Levels. Most schools make English, Maths and Science GCSEs obligatory. GCSEs have grades from A*–U. In the eyes of schools, colleges and the government, a ‘C’ grade is in effect a pass, a ‘D’ grade or below is a fail. Many further education* courses demand that students achieve five GCSEs at grades A*–C.
Gifted and talented - Gifted and talented students are those considered to be the most academically able in the school. All schools should have a gifted and talented programme.
Governors - Every school has a governing body. They are a group of volunteers chosen by parents, the local authority, the community and school staff.They are responsible for strategic and legal aspects of the school’s work. The governing body line manages the Head teacher.
Graduate teacher - A graduate teacher carries out school based teacher training.
Grammar schools - State grammar schools are selective schools. They have an entrance test, often still called the 11 plus exam, which selects the most academic students. Relatively few areas still have grammar schools.
Graphics - Graphics is the study of aspects of design using drawing and computer technology. It is part of the Design and Technology* subject group but is often found as a separate subject at key stage 4*. It was traditionally known as technical drawing.
HE - HE, Higher Education is education at degree level or equivalent, normally undertaken after the 6th form.
Head of department - Each subject area usually has a Head of department, for example, a Head of History. Larger subject areas often have deputy heads of department. Some schools have heads of faculty*, meaning the head of a group of subjects. A head of department or faculty* is responsible for the teaching and learning in their particular subject area(s).
Head of faculty - Each subject area usually has a Head of department, for example, a Head of History. Larger subject areas often have deputy heads of department. Some schools have heads of faculty, meaning the head of a group of subjects. A head of department or faculty is responsible for the teaching and learning in their particular subject area(s).
Head of house - A student will be in a year group from Years 7 to 11 or 13*.They might also be in a house*. A house is a team that students are organised into, usually for reasons of group loyalty or inter group competition. The Head of year or house is responsible for a year group or house. The Head of year usually progresses up the school with their year group, eventually becoming their Head of year 11. Less commonly, Heads of year remain stationary while the students move on, for example, a static Head of year 7. Heads of 6th form are normally specialist posts.The Head of year or house is usually responsible for results, behaviour and the moral and social welfare of students. After the tutor*, the head of year or house is the first person a parent would contact about their child.
Head of year - A student will be in a year group from Years 7 to 11 or 13*.They might also be in a house*. A house is a team that students are organised into, usually for reasons of group loyalty or inter group competition. The Head of year or house is responsible for a year group or house. The Head of year usually progresses up the school with their year group, eventually becoming their Head of year 11. Less commonly, Heads of year remain stationary while the students move on, for example, a static Head of year 7. Heads of 6th form are normally specialist posts.The Head of year or house is usually responsible for results, behaviour and the moral and social welfare of students. After the tutor*, the head of year or house is the first person a parent would contact about their child.
Healthy schools - Healthy school status is a government programme through which schools can be accredited if they address certain priorities related to students’ physical well being.
Higher Education - HE, Higher Education is education at degree level or equivalent, normally undertaken after the 6th form.
Higher Level Teaching Assistants - Also known as ‘Teaching Assistants (TAs)’, ‘Classroom Assistants’, ‘Special Needs Assistants (SNAs)’,‘Support staff’. Assistants support teachers in and out of the lesson working with particular students, for example, those with special educational needs*.
HLTAs - Higher Level Teaching Assistants, also known as ‘Teaching Assistants (TAs)’, ‘Classroom Assistants’, ‘Special Needs Assistants (SNAs)’,‘Support staff’. Assistants support teachers in and out of the lesson working with particular students, for example, those with special educational needs*.
House - See also 'Head of year/ Head of house'. A house is a team that groups of students are organised into for reasons of motivation and camaraderie. Houses usually stretch across year groups.
ICT - ICT, Information and Communication Technology is the aspect of the curriculum where students work with and learn about computers and related technology. It was previously known as IT.
Independent schools - Also known as ‘private schools’,‘public schools’*. Independent schools are fee paying, privately run schools.
Journal - Also known as ‘day book’, or ‘diary’. Most schools give students a school journal. It is used primarily for recording homework, and facilitating communication between home and school. The journal usually has a place where parents and tutors* can sign every week, to say they have read the homework set and acknowledged any communications with each other.
Key stage 2 - Key stage 2 is the learning stage from Year 4* age 8/9 to Year 6* age 10/11, at primary school. At the end of key stage 2, students take national SATs* exams in English, Maths and Science, although in 2010, some schools boycotted the SATs exams.
Key stage 3 - Key stage 3 is the learning stage from Year 7* age 11/12 to Year 9* age 14, at secondary school. At the end of key stage 3, students are given a key stage 3 level by their teacher in each subject.
Key stage 4 - Key stage 4 is the learning stage from Year 10* age 15 to Year 11* age 16. At the end of key stage 4 students take GCSEs*, BTECs*, Diplomas*, or other qualifications appropriate to their ability.
Key stage 5 - Key Stage 5 encompasses Years 12 and Year 13*, or the 6th form*. Here students take ‘A’ Levels* or equivalent vocational qualifications, such as BTEC*.
KS2 - Key stage 2 is the learning stage from Year 4* age 8/9 to Year 6* age 10/11, at primary school. At the end of key stage 2, students take national SATs* exams in English, Maths and Science, although in 2010, some schools boycotted the SATs exams.
KS3 - Key stage 3 is the learning stage from Year 7* age 11/12 to Year 9* age 14, at secondary school. At the end of key stage 3, students are given a key stage 3 level by their teacher in each subject.
KS4 - Key stage 4 is the learning stage from Year 10* age 15 to Year 11* age 16. At the end of key stage 4 students take GCSEs*, BTECs*, Diplomas*, or other qualifications appropriate to their ability.
KS5 - Key Stage 5 encompasses Years 12 and Year 13*, or the 6th form*. Here students take ‘A’ Levels* or equivalent vocational qualifications, such as BTEC*.
LEA - The LEA, local education authority, is in charge of delivering education for the council in a borough or county.
League Tables - (known as School and College Performance Tables, or School Achievement and Attainment Tables). These tables measure the performance of schools' pupils in national tests, at age 11, 16 and 18.
Learning mentors - Also known as ‘mentors’. Learning Mentors are employed by schools to support students encountering social or organisational difficulties which are hindering their studies.
Levels - At key stage 2* and key stage 3* students are awarded National Curriculum levels to measure academic progress. The levels go from level 1 to level 8. In Year 9*, level 5 is the average nationally.
Local education authority - The LEA, local education authority, is in charge of delivering education for the council in a borough or county.
Maintained schools - Maintained schools are funded by the government via the local authority, and do not charge fees to students. The categories of maintained school are: community, foundation (including trust), voluntary aided and voluntary controlled.
Mentors - Learning Mentors are employed by schools to support students encountering social or organisational difficulties which are hindering their studies.
MFL - MFL, Modern Foreign Languages, is the study of foreign languages at secondary school.
Midday assistants - Midday assistants are non teaching staff employed to supervise students during their breaks and lunchtimes.
Middle schools - Middle schools take students from Years 5 to 8*,age 9 to 13. Some boroughs or counties have a system where all students go from a primary or first* school, to a middle school to a high school at the age of 13. A few boroughs or counties have a junior and secondary school system in the main, with a few middle schools.
Mixed ability - Mixed ability is a system of organising students into teaching groups, with a range of academic abilities in one classroom.
Modern Foreign Languages - MFL, Modern Foreign Languages, is the study of foreign languages at secondary school.
National Curriculum - The National Curriculum consists of those subjects and programmes of study that schools are legally required to provide. Academies* and Free Schools* do are not required to deliver the National Curriculum.
Notice to improve - Ofsted* gives a school 'notice to improve' if they have concerns about the education the school is providing for students.
Ofsted - Ofsted, Office for Standards in Education, is the government body which inspectsschools, measures their success, and writes reports of their findings. All Ofsted reports can be found on their website.
Options - Taking place in Year 9* options is the process where students choose which subjects they wish to study at key stage 4*. English, Maths, Science, RE*, Citizenship* and ICT* are not normally optional. Students can normally opt for a number of other subjects depending on the school’s curriculum. There is normally no guarantee that students will be given the subjects they opt for.
Parents' evening - A parents’ evening is an event when parents come into school, sometimes accompanied by their child, to talk to teachers about their child’s progress.
Pastoral system - The pastoral system is the mechanism responsible for your child’s welfare. Most schools have Heads of year*, assistant heads of year and tutors*. In some schools there is a house* system, with a head and deputy head of house. These people are usually responsible primarily for your child’s social wellbeing, although in recent years there has been more emphasis in school pastoral systems upon raising academic attainment.
PGCE - A PGCE, Post graduate certificate in education, is the most common qualification followed by graduates wishing to become teachers.
Private schools - Also known as ‘independent schools’,‘public schools’*. Private schools are fee paying, privately run schools.
Progress - Schools are measured nationally according to attainment and progress. Progress is how well pupils have done given their starting points. For example, pupils' progress from key stage 2 to key stage 4 is measured.
PSHE - PSHE, Personal, Social and Health Education, is the study and discussion of issues students will encounter in their personal and adult life.
PTA - Also known as parent association (PA). A PTA, parent teacher association, is an organisation of parents, with some school staff input, who arrange events for the school, such as fetes or quiz nights, usually to raise funds and generate a social link between and amongst school staff and parents.
Public schools - Public schools are the most elite and prestigious independent* schools.
Pupil Premium - The Pupil Premium is a source of money given to schools by the government to support pupils in receipt of Free School Meals*
RE - Also known as ‘Religious Studies' (RS). RE, Religious Education, is a compulsory subject in state* schools.
Resistant Materials - RM, Resistant Materials, is the study of the use of wood, metal and plastics in design and manufacture. The traditional subjects of wood work and metal work now fall under this heading. It is part of the Design and Technology* subject group.
RM - RM, Resistant Materials, is the study of the use of wood, metal and plastics in design and manufacture. The traditional subjects of wood work and metal work now fall under this heading. It is part of the Design and Technology* subject group.
SATs - SATs, Standard Assessment Tasks, are national exams students take at the end of key stage 1*. In 2010, some students completed them at the end of key stage *, but they were boycotted by other schools.
School Achievement and Assessment Tables - (now known as School and College Performance Tables). These tables measure the performance of schools' pupils in national tests, at age 11, 16 and 18.
School and College Performance Tables - (previously known as School Achievement and Assessment Tables*). These tables measure the performance of schools' pupils in national tests, at age 11, 16 and 18.
SEN - All schools have an SEN, Special Educational Needs, department which is dedicated to students with particular behavioural and learning needs, for example, problems with reading.
Senior management - Also sometimes known as ‘Senior Leadership Team' (SLT), or ‘Senior Team’. The senior Management are the staff who lead a school.The team usually consists of a head teacher, Deputy head teachers, and assistant head teachers. The number of assistants and deputies depends on the size of the school.
Setting - Setting is a way of organising students into groups according to ability.Setting is particular to a subject area, so a student could be in the top set for Maths and the third set for English.
SNAs - Also known as ‘Teaching Assistants (TAs)’, ‘Higher Level Teaching Assistants (HLTAs)’, ‘Classroom Assistants’,‘Support staff’. Assistants support teachers in and out of the lesson working with particular students, for example, those with special educational needs*.
Special Educational Needs - All schools have an SEN, Special Educational Needs, department which is dedicated to students with particular behavioural and learning needs, for example, problems with reading.
Special Measures - Schools are put into Special Measures by Ofsted* if they are deemed to be failing to provide students with a satisfactory standard of education.
Special Needs Assistants - Also known as ‘Teaching Assistants (TAs)’, ‘Higher Level Teaching Assistants (HLTAs)’, ‘Classroom Assistants’,‘Support staff’. Assistants support teachers in and out of the lesson working with particular students, for example, those with special educational needs*.
Special schools - Special schools educate students with a particular learning need, for example, a special school for students with severe physical disabilities.
Specialist schools - Specialist Schools specialise in a particular curriculum area. In the past, they had to apply to the DfES* to be designated as specialist, and they were given extra money to develop resources in their specialist area. These schools can also prioritise 10% of their places for students with a particular aptitude in the specialism, although few do. Specialist schools are often called colleges, for example, Science and Technology Colleges.
State schools - State schools are non-fee paying schools provided by the state.
Statement of special educational needs - If a student has significant special educational needs* they may be given a statement which defines what support they are legally entitled to.
Streaming - Also known as ‘banding’. Banding is a way of organising students into ability groups.Banding means that students are put into the same ability groups for most or all subjects. So if a student is in the top band for Maths, they will also be in the top band for other subjects, like English and Science. Banding is also a method some local authorities use to ensure that students from different ability groups are represented in all their comprehensive schools.
Supply teacher - Also known as ‘cover teacher’. A supply teacher is a teacher not employed by the school usually brought in from an agency to cover for an absent teacher.
Suspensions - The most serious sanctions a school can use are fixed term or permanent exclusions. ‘Fixed term’ exclusions are sometimes called suspensions. Fixed term exclusions are for a set number of days.
TAs - Teaching Assistants, also known as ‘Classroom Assistants’, ‘Higher Level Teaching Assistants (HLTAs)’, ‘Special Needs Assistants (SNAs)’,‘Support staff’. Assistants support teachers in and out of the lesson working with particular students, for example, those with special educational needs*.
Teaching Assistants - Also known as ‘Classroom Assistants’, ‘Higher Level Teacher Assistants (HLTAs)’, ‘Special Needs Assistants (SNAs)’,‘Support staff’. Assistants support teachers in and out of the lesson working with particular students, for example, those with special educational needs*.
TES - The TES, Times Educational Supplement, is a weekly paper covering educational issues, where almost all teaching jobs are advertised.
Textiles - Textiles is the study and practical use of fabrics in design and manufacture. It is part of the Design and Technology* subject group.
Threshold - Threshold is an additional salary payment made to an experienced teacher.
Transition - Transition is the movement between Years 6 and 7*, the most common point at which students move from primary/junior school to secondary school.
Trust schools - Trust schools are broadly the same as foundation schools. They receive extra support (usually non-monetary) from a charitable trust made up of partners working together for the benefit of the school. The governing body is the employer and admissions authority, rather than the local authority, as is the case for maintained schools. Faith schools are often trust schools.
Tutor - Also known as ‘form tutor’. A tutor is a teacher who registers a class of students and oversees their moral and social welfare. They should have a close overview of each tutee’s progress, although it is quite likely that the tutor will not teach the students in their tutor group. Tutors are often the first point of contact for parents. A tutor is line managed by a head of year* or head of house*.
Tutor group - Also known as ‘form group’. In most secondary schools, students are organised into tutor groups. Usually these tutor groups are horizontal – that means they are made up of students from the same year group; less often they are vertical – composed of students from all year groups. The tutor group is the students’ core social group. Students usually register with their tutor*.
Units of work - The curriculum that students follow is often compartmentalised into units of work. It is likely that a class might do something like one unit of work in each subject every half term. Good schools will assess students on each unit completed.
Value added - If a school adds value, it means that it has managed to support its students in reaching a higher grade than they were originally predicted. Schools can use key stage 2 and 3* levels* to measure how much value has been added. For example, a student with a level 5 at key stage 3* is normally predicted a grade ‘C’ at GCSE*. If that student then goes on to get a ‘B’ at GCSE, then the school has added value.
Vocational - Normally found at key stages 4 and 5*, a vocational course has a strong work related focus.
Voluntary aided - In voluntary aided schools (many of which are faith schools) the governing body, as opposed to the local education authority*, employs the staff, and decides admission arrangements.
Voluntary controlled - In Voluntary controlled schools, the charitable foundation which owns the school, (often a church organisation) appoints the governors, but the teachers are employed by the local education authority*, which is also responsible for admissions*.
Voluntary-aided schools - Voluntary-aided schools are usually church schools. They are partly funded by the state, with the religious body responsible for 10 per cent of capital works and having greater influence over the school.
Voluntary-controlled schools - Voluntary-controlled (VC) schools are usually church schools. They have all their costs met by the state, and are controlled by the local authority.
Year 10 - Fourth year of secondary school, 14 - 15 years old.
Year 11 - Fifth year of secondary school, 15 - 16 years old.
Year 12 - First year of 6th form, 16 - 17 years old.
Year 13 - Second year of l6th form, 17 - 18 years old.
Year 7 - First year of secondary school, 11 - 12 years old.
Year 8 - Second year of secondary school, 12 - 13 years old.
Year 9 - Third year of secondary school, 13 - 14 years old.
'A' Levels - ‘A’ Levels are one of the qualifications that students can do in the 6th form, Years 12 and 13*. They are split into two parts, AS and A2.‘A’ Levels are considered to be an academic qualification. Most degree courses at universities stipulate that students should have three ‘A’ Levels at particular grades.




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